BIOPROCESSING AND BIOMANUFACTURING ECONOMIC
Bioprocessing and biomanufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals.The negative costs of bioprocessing and bio manufacturing can also be addressed legally. Biomanufacturers can be subjected to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of biomanufacturing activities. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in biomanufacturing and investment focus on:
- the nature and sources of the considerable variations in biomanufacturing and industrial-economic growth;
- competitiveness; and
- attractiveness to foreign direct.
We plan to examine the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of bioprocessing and biomanufacturing development. We tried to compare the production and investment invarious countries and regions, and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors.